Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the chest. It is primarily used to assess abnormal masses such as cancer and determine the size, extent and degree of its spread to adjacent structures. It's also used to assess the anatomy and function of the heart and its blood flow.
Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there's a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.
Most MRI exams are painless. However, some patients find it uncomfortable to remain still. Others may feel closed-in (claustrophobic) while in the MRI scanner. The scanner can be noisy. Sedation may be arranged for anxious patients, but fewer than one in 20 require it.
It is normal for the area of your body being imaged to feel slightly warm. If it bothers you, tell the radiologist or technologist. It is important that you remain perfectly still while the images are being taken. This is typically only a few seconds to a few minutes at a time. You will know when images are being recorded because you will hear and feel loud tapping or thumping sounds. These are made when the coils that generate the radio waves are activated. You will be provided with earplugs or headphones to reduce the sounds made by the scanner. You may be able to relax between imaging sequences. However, you will be asked to keep the same position without moving as much as possible.
You will usually be alone in the exam room. However, the technologist will be able to see, hear and speak with you at all times using a two-way intercom. Many facilities allow a friend or parent to stay in the room if they have also been screened for safety.
Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help pass the time.
In some cases, IV injection of contrast material may be given before the images are obtained. The IV needle may cause you some discomfort and you may experience some bruising. There is also a very small chance of skin irritation at the site of the IV tube insertion. Some patients may have a temporary metallic taste in their mouth after the contrast injection.
If you do not require sedation, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. On very rare occasions, a few patients experience side effects from the contrast material. These may include nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. It is very rare that patients experience hives, itchy eyes or other allergic reactions to the contrast material. If you have allergic symptoms, tell the technologist. A radiologist or other doctor will be available for immediate assistance.
MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to radiation.
- MR images of the heart and vascular structures are often clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions.
- MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue abnormalities of the chest. MRI is also useful for staging tumors.
- MRI can help physicians evaluate both the structure of an organ and how it is working.
- MRI can detect abnormalities that might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods.
- The MRI gadolinium contrast material is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than the iodine-based contrast materials used for x-rays and CT scanning.
- MRI of the chest is often more informative than other imaging procedures for differentiating and characterizing soft tissues, except for lung abnormalities where Chest CT is a preferred imaging test.
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