Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted to humans by mosquitoes bite that live in tropical and subtropical climates and carry the virus. Blood testing detects the dengue virus or antibodies produced in response to dengue infection.
Dengue virus is caused by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses.
If a person develops a fever within two weeks following travel to an area where dengue fever is present, it may be prudent to test for dengue fever. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), dengue infections have been reported in more than 100 countries from parts of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. It is a fast emerging infectious disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with an increasing number of cases and countries affected throughout the world. Approximately 50 to 100 million cases occur annually worldwide.
In the U.S., the majority of dengue cases occur in travelers returning from areas where dengue is endemic. Most dengue cases in U.S. citizens occur in those inhabitants of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Samoa and Guam. Outbreaks where a large number of cases occur in a defined area are rare in the U.S. In recent years, there have been small outbreaks in Texas and Hawaii and a few cases diagnosed in southern Florida.
Many individuals will develop no symptoms at all, or have only a mild illness when exposed to one of the four serotypes of the dengue virus. For those who do develop symptoms, prognosis is still very good for full recovery within a few weeks. The most common initial symptoms are a sudden high fever (104°F or 40°C) and flu-like symptoms that appear roughly 4 to 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito (this is called the incubation period and can range from 3 to 14 days).
Symptoms of dengue fever are generally mild in younger children and those who have the disease for the first time. Older kids, adults, and those who have had a previous infection may have moderate to severe symptoms. Additional signs and symptoms may include severe headache, especially behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, and swollen glands.
Some people who develop a fever will recover on their own with no lasting ill effects while others may progress to severe dengue fever (sometimes called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever). If the disease progresses to this form, a new wave of symptoms will appear 3 to 7 days after initial symptoms and as the fever recedes. These may include nose bleeds, vomiting blood, passing blood in the stool, difficulty breathing and cold clammy skin, especially in the extremities. During the second phase, the virus may attack blood vessels (the vascular system), causing capillaries to leak fluid into the space around the lungs (pleural effusion) or into the abdominal cavity (ascites). Currently, there is no explanation as to why dengue fever resolves itself harmlessly in some people while progressing to the severe form in others.
The loss of blood and fluid during the second phase, if untreated, can sometimes develop into a rare condition known as Dengue Shock Syndrome and can be fatal. In order to avoid that complication, a doctor may hospitalize a patient with dengue fever so that falling blood pressure and dehydration caused by the loss of blood and fluids can be managed while the disease runs its course ? generally a period of one to two weeks. During the following week of recovery, a person may develop a second rash that lasts a week or more.
Dengue fever is usually diagnosed via some combination of blood tests because the body's immune response to the virus is dynamic and complex. Laboratory tests may include:
1 .Molecular tests for dengue virus (PCR)?
detect the presence of the virus itself; these tests can diagnose dengue fever up to 5 days after the onset of symptoms.
detect antibodies produced by the immune system when a person has been exposed to the virus; these tests are most effective when performed at least 7-10 days after exposure.
3.Complete blood count CBC- to look for low platelet count typical of the later stages of the illness and to detect the decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) count (evidence of anemia) that would occur with blood loss associated with severe dengue fever
4.Basic metabolic panel (BMP) ?
to monitor kidney function and look for evidence of dehydration that can occur with severe illness
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Dengue NS1 Antigen. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Dengue NS1 Antigen.
No specific preparation is required for dengue virus NS1 test.
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If your test results show positive results then the dengue NS1 antigen is consistent with acute-phase infection.
If your test results are negative then dengue NS1 antigen is consistent with the lack of acute phase infection. The dengue NS1 test may also be negative if the specimen is collected before 24-48 hours of dengue virus attack.
If you get abnormal test results, consult your doctor immediately. Your doctor may recommend other tests depending on your results.
Gender : Age groups Value
MALE : All age groups Dengue Viral Antigen detected in positive cases
FEMALE : All age groups Dengue Viral Antigen detected in positive cases
The advantage of this SD Dengue Duo rapid test kit is that it is designed to detect both dengue virus NS1 antigen and differential IgM/IgG antibodies to dengue virus in human blood. NS1 antigen is generally found during Day 1 and up to Day 9 after onset of fever.
NS1 tests detect the non-structural protein NS1 of dengue virus. This protein is secreted into the blood during dengue infection. NS1 tests have been developed for use in serum. Most of these tests use synthetically labeled antibodies to detect dengue NS1 protein.
- Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection.
- The virus responsible for causing dengue, is called dengue virus (DENV). There are four DENV serotypes, meaning that it is possible to be infected four times.
- While many DENV infections produce only mild illness, DENV can cause an acute flu-like illness. Occasionally this develops into a potentially lethal complication, called severe dengue.
- Severe dengue is a leading cause of serious illness and death in some Asian and Latin American countries. It requires management by medical professionals.
- There is no specific treatment for dengue/severe dengue. Early detection of disease progression associated with severe dengue, and access to proper medical care lowers fatality rates of severe dengue to below 1%. Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.
- The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades. About half of the world's population is now at risk. There are an estimated 100-400 million infections each year.
- Dengue prevention and control depends on effective vector control measures. Sustained community involvement can improve vector control efforts substantially.
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